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Cicerone, K.D. (2004). Participation as an outcome of traumatic brain injury rehabilitation. Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation, 19(6), 494-501.

Objectives: Participation in meaningful life situations is an important aspect of functioning after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, to date, few studies have included measures of social participation or community integration as outcome measures after TBI rehabilitation. This paper is a selective review of the literature that examines the effects of TBI rehabilitation on measures of participation or community integration. It also addresses the related questions of clinically significant improvements in community integration, variability in patterns of community functioning, and the relationship of participation and quality of life after TBI. Design: Literature review. Conclusions: A small number of studies suggest that postacute TBI rehabilitation can produce improvements in participation and community integration. However, a considerable amount of variability in rehabilitation outcomes may be apparent. Analysis of clinically significant changes in individual’s functioning suggests that rehabilitation may exert its benefits not only by facilitating improvements, but also by preventing declines in community functioning. Subjective well-being and quality of life have generally been ignored as TBI rehabilitation outcomes. There is considerable evidence that participation and subjective well-being represent distinct and dissociable outcomes after TBI, which may reflect the importance of patients’ preferences and values in evaluating the effectiveness of rehabilitation.